Tag Archives: history

On D-Day, Exploring the Context of “As We May Think”

As We May Think (Cover)

During National Poetry Month (April), I thought it would be interesting to quote one of the poems published in the same issue of The Atlantic Monthly as the incredible essay, “As We May Think,” by Vannevar Bush.

“As We May Think” was required reading when I was in grad school, and it still it. This is a work that was truly seminal in shaping the origins of the Internet, hypertext, the Web, more. Provocative, inspirational, decades before its time. It’s online, easy to find, and it’s even open and free to the world. When I went looking for poems from the issue, though, that was not easy to find, much less free. I ended up having to request the print copy. Print. Really? You must be kidding me, but no, it’s true. It took me a month to believe I wasn’t going to find it online, and another few weeks for me to place the request for the print and find time to actually look at it.

You know what happens with print? You go looking for one thing, and find something else. You turn a page, and a picture catches your eye. You start to skim one article, but a beautiful word or phrase on the facing page distracts you. Before you know it, you are turning pages whether or not they have anything to do with your original question.

Let me tell you something about the issue of The Atlantic for July 1945. It was published less than a year after D-Day. It was published only a few months after the official end to the war. It was published when people first began to see, to believe, that World War II really was going to end, and stay done. It was the beginning of moving through the shock and trauma of the war, beginning to tell stories that couldn’t be born, that no one wants to remember.

When I first read “As We May Think” it seemed all shiny and glossy, this vision of what might someday become computers, personal assistants, ready flexible access to information. The dream that was so much bigger than people realized at the time, bigger than I realized when I read it in grad school. I had no idea that this was one essay of a larger series that The Atlantic was publishing on science and the war, no real idea of the world in which it was written. Sure, we studied WWII in school, read about the concentration camps, the war bonds, the atom bomb, the refugees, the destruction of historical treasures across Europe, the bombing of London, the evacuations, the debates in America about whether or not to enter the war, the American resistors who joined the war efforts in Europe early and were shunned as unpatriotic for the rest of their lives.

It never really came alive for me, though, in the way that it did when my computers broke this week and I went through the journal issue that contained Vannevar Bush’s essay. Some of what I found there:
– “paper bombs” as tools to influence thought
– Ad: advertisements on new technologies created for the war that had drastic impacts on food and home lives of civilians (from ice cream to oranges to vitamins)
– serious examinations of media reporters, “their reliability, their prejudices, and their mistakes”
– the role of propaganda on both sides of the conflict as obvious and visible even at the time
– first person reports of Buchenwald, shocking ghastly stories neglected from modern reports of the camps
– bitter heart-wrenching poems of soldiers from the fronts
– sweet stories of life back home, still edged with fatigue and loss and an undertone of the global anxieties, and stories of life with what we now call PTSD or depression or anxiety or others
– “Should Jews Return to Germany?”
– Ad: the misunderstood science that led to putting iodine in gasoline
– “Prithee, Little Book, Who Made Thee?”
– Ad: “Coal? Yes, indeed, it’s a big item in the drugstore!”
– Ad: “For the first time in history, a world without poverty and without war is technically possible. Whether we achieve it depends on how well we understand the ‘Economies Of Peace’.”
– book reviews of and advertisements for works by Henry James, Upton Sinclair, Thomas Mann, John Crowe Ransom, W. H. Auden, and other familiar names.

Somehow, “As We May Think” takes on a different flavor in the context of essays, and poems like this snippet from Sasserath, which resonate so very differently now than when they were written, that echo with limits and struggles that repeat now in some places and yet have become fictions in others.

“We who must live on substitutes for life,
The powdered egg, the dehydrated spud, …
Or learn the art of love with plastic limbs …”
“On Anodynes, by Simpson Sasserath, RT2/c

Reading and seeing “As We May Think” in the context of the series of which it was a part, similarly lends a depth that makes it seem even more extraordinary. The series was called, “A Scientist Looks at Tomorrow,” beginning in 1945 ad stretching to at least 1947. It included titles such as these:

– The Social Animal / Caryl P. Haskins
– Stars, Proteins, and Nations / Philippe Le Corbeiller
– A Design for Fighting / Harlow Shapley
– Penicillin, Plasma Fractionation, and the Physician / Dr. John F. Fulton
– A Physicist Returns from the War / I. I. Rabi
– Psychiatry and the Way / Big. Gen. William G. Menninger
– DDT and the Balance of Nature / V. B. Wigglesworth

I’m now curious to find them all, as a fascinating window into what was considered the cutting edge of emerging technologies in the mid-1940s. But the few sentences that resonated with me most closely came from a few months after the Bush essay, towards the end of the year, in an essay called, “The Return to Love,” by Rollo Walter Brown.

We can take our choice. If we do not believe that the awakening, the generosity, the loyalty, the warmth, expressed in love can transform the world into something more livable than what we now have, then we can take the alternative and believe that husbands and wives who cannot endure each other, neighbors who cannot endure each other, races who cannot endure each other, people who scoff at anyone who would make an improvement, can somehow, added together, constitute one world living in amity. We can wait among our raucous hatreds until somebody somewhere decides to enforce his special hatred with some super-super atomic bomb. That is something definite and “realistic.” But might we not have a more interesting world if we tried love?

Since Katrina, Part One: #SinceKatrina, #Katrina10, #Katrina10Years

Katrina Memorial

It’s been 10 years since Hurricane Katrina. Hurricane Katrina changed my life, in many ways. I want to talk about health information challenges then and now, how the information landscape has changed, but that will come in Part Two. For today’s post, I want to honor many of the other voices and conversations around this anniversary. The hashtags collecting these are:

#Katrina
#Katrina10
#Katrina10Years
#SinceKatrina

People are telling the stories of what happened then, remembering, grieving, sharing anger and hurt that has barely faded. Others are analyzing again what went wrong. A few are celebrating survival and growth. Many are looking to the lessons learned and what must happen to prevent this happening again. There are many worthy stories, opinions, ideas, and ideals here. I’ve selected just a few.

STORYTELLING: THEN & NOW | HEALTH & MEDICAL | HISTORY, MUSEUMS, EDUCATION, & LIBRARIES | RESILIENCE, LOSSES, & LESSONS LEARNED | PROGRESS & NEW TOOLS

STORYTELLING: THEN & NOW

HEALTH & MEDICAL

HISTORY, MUSEUMS, EDUCATION, & LIBRARIES

RESILIENCE, LOSSES, & LESSONS LEARNED

PROGRESS & NEW TOOLS

25th Anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act: A Personal Timeline [#ADA25]

ADA 25th Anniversary

The 25th anniversary of the signing into law of the Americans with Disabilities Act is this week. Disability, accessibility, and usability are frequent topics in this blog. I can’t let this pass without a post (despite being rather delinquent with posting since our move into our new library, but more on that another time). But what do I have to offer? There are countless people around the country writing about what has changed since the ADA came into effect, and how much remains to do. There are organizations devoted to #ADA25 with toolkits for organizing your own events. There are celebrations at the White House and most of the state capitals, and beyond. (Resources and links towards the end of this post.) So what can I do? Perhaps just share my own stories of disability experiences in my own life.

MY PERSONAL DISABILITY EXPERIENCE TIMELINE

These are mostly stories from long before the ADA was signed into law. Back then, having a disability was shameful and stigmatized, denied and hidden if at all possible. Accommodations wasn’t even a concept that most people could hold in their mind. The language used to discuss disabilities was stigmatizing and hurtful, at best. You had to have a thick skin. Then, as far as we knew, my family was all able-bodied. We know better now. Several of us in my family have something not quite right with our bodies or minds. I suspect this is true for many families. The families I’ve met with extreme good health are often from cultures where disabilities is still heavily stigmatized, so I’m never quite sure if they are truly as healthy as they say, or if they are also in denial.

Eating sorrel at recess

I was in grade school, probably 2nd grade. There was a red-headed boy with freckles who was new to our class and a lot bigger than everyone else. He had been held back because he couldn’t pass the grade, so he was taking 2nd grade over again. His parents had transferred him to the Catholic school hoping that he’d get more support at a private school than in the public school system. These days we wouldn’t hold the kid back, but would have them tested for a learning disability, get a diagnosis, figure out the accommodations, and design an IEP. No one would play with him. He was new, big, a little scary, and people thought there was something wrong with him. No one was sure what, but they didn’t want to get too close. It was the contagion theory of disability. “Oops! He has cooties! It’s catching!”

I was a victim of the same contagion theory. My brother also had some undiagnosed disability (later discovered to be on the autism spectrum). The other kids wanted to steer clear of him, and by association, me as well. Not every one, and not all the time. Sometimes people would play with me. Not like the red-headed boy. No one EVER played with him. So I took him under my wing. At recess we’d go over to a big tree, sit in the dirt, and talk. I was really smart, and he wasn’t, at least in the same way, but he thought hard about things and had good questions. I’d answer his questions, and I enjoyed playing teacher. One of the things I showed him was the sorrel growing wild in the grass under the tree, that tasted tart and salty at the same time. At the end of the year, he didn’t pass again, and was held back again, or transferred again. I don’t know. I never saw him after that year. 

One leg shorter

A few years later, my family transferred all of us to a public school because we couldn’t afford the fees. In my new class there was a boy who had one leg that was shorter than the other. He’d had polio when he was little, and almost died, I was told. But he didn’t die, it just messed up his leg. Even so, he was taller than me. Quiet. I mean, REALLY quiet. I don’t remember him ever talking without being ordered to. He wore glasses, had dark hair that he wore almost down to his shoulders (which just wasn’t done then), with long bangs that fell over his face. In those days, we wouldn’t have called him disabled, it was just there were things he couldn’t do. He was that little bit ‘different,’ and boy, did he know it! I wanted to talk to him and get to know him (I thought he was kind of cute), but he didn’t talk to anyone.

Smart as a whip, too bad about the wheelchair

There were two Anderson families in my town that had large families. Mine was one, and there was another one. In middle school, I got to meet one of the kids from the other Anderson family. Ken Anderson was in a wheelchair, I didn’t know why. His disability was big and obvious and he couldn’t hide it. He was smart, social, and people liked him. There was never a shortage of folk who would help push his chair. Ken went on to found a student organization for people with “handicaps” (that was the lingo then) at the University of Iowa. It was called Restrict Us Not (RUN). He had a successful accounting career, and founded his own business. Ken died last winter.

Put the pedal to the metal

In high school, Jeff Benson was a year ahead of me. Jeff had also had polio (I’m old enough to remember getting the vaccine on sugar cubes). For him, it wasn’t just one leg, and not just a little. Both legs were effected. He could have used a wheelchair, but I remember him walking with arm braces. Bright, shiny light hair, gritty and determined, and always the life of the party. He was a live wire! He was a drummer for a popular band, and really belted it out. I remember when he got his first set of wheels. At that age, I didn’t know it was possible for people with wheelchairs to drive. I’m not sure anyone in town had seen a car like this before! His parents had the red hotrod modified to use hand brakes, and I remember him waving to his audience, as he’d roar out of the parking lot with the top down. We lost Jeff just a couple months ago.

Hiding in plain sight

In college, one year, I took Italian. It was a small class. The university didn’t allow classes to be taught unless they had a minimum of six students. We managed to barely scrape by with just the required number to allow us to take the class for the full year. There was one young man who was a senior for the second time. He was in engineering, and they wouldn’t allow him to graduate until he had a full year of a foreign language. He had already flunked out of every other foreign language taught at the school, and this was his last chance to graduate. He struggled, but we all helped him along. Towards the end of the year, the rest of us went off to the side and had a conversation. We had all figured out that he had dyslexia. Did he know? Did he know there are resources to help? Should we talk to him about it? Life could be easier, you know! So we did. We brought it up the last day of class. We mentioned that we knew he had to be absolutely brilliant to have gotten along this far with good grades and no one knowing. He completely panicked. He’d been trying to hide it for his entire school career, and was terrified that we would tell someone and he’d never be able to get a job.

Keeping her safe from romance

After college, I worked at the university library. Someone brought in one of the faculty who was blind to talk about how she used information resources. She was brilliant, obviously, sturdy, and with a huge sense of humor, but life wasn’t built for people with visual impairments, and she had no vision at all. How had she gotten through school and become a faculty member? What struck us the most about her story was when she complained that they had no audiobooks of Harlequin romances. She explained that people with disabilities were considered too fragile to have any interest in sex or romance, and so the organizations that would pay to make audio copies of her academic research information needs would not pay for “smut.” A couple of the gals took matters into their own hands and corralled a group of volunteers. We all took a chapter, and recorded a “smutty” romance novel for her.

Closing Thoughts

I could go on. There are many more stories. As the time of the ADA came closer, I have more and more stories of people wanting to learn more and understand about the barriers. After the ADA was signed, I have stories of some incredibly bone-headed things people did in the name of “accommodation.” When I moved here to Ann Arbor, I was initially shocked by the lack of accessibility for the library I was to manage, and how difficult it was to find people on campus aware of web accessibility. We got an elevator for my library, and then we got a campus web accessibility working group. 

First Meeting of the University of Michigan Web Accessibility Interest Group
1pm on Tuesday August 7, 2007, in a meeting room in the School of Public Health.

There is still a lot to do, but we keep trying. Meanwhile, over the years, many if my friends and family have been diagnosed with temporary, chronic, or permanent health issues ofone  sort or another. Disability advocacy started out for me as something I wanted to do for others, because I love to help people. Now it is personal. As I age, it becomes more and more personal. Without the ADA, I probably wouldn’t even have a job. I wouldn’t have been able to get past a few major health hurdles in the past few decades. Because of the protection of the law, I was able to get accommodations and keep working. I hope that what I do will continue to be useful for years to come. 


RESOURCES AND LINKS

ADA Anniversary Toolkit: http://adaanniversary.org/
Proclamation (Organizations & Government Entities)
Pledge for Individuals
Faith Communities
Resources
ADA Information: http://www.adainformation.org/
Quizbook
ADA Legacy Project: http://www.adalegacy.com/ada25
ADA National Network (Great Plains ADA Center): https://adata.org/ada-anniversary
Timeline of the American with Disabilities Act
National ADA Systematic Review
ADA 25 Celebrate: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCbUCwPT82s4WnKwnc-vEQyw
Disability.gov ADA25 Social Media Toolkit: https://www.disability.gov/newsroom/ada-25-social-media-toolkit/
Smithsonian: EveryBody: An Artifact History of Disability in America: https://everybody.si.edu/
Access to resources often comes through technology
Communication, Transportation, Medicine, War

Hashtags:
#ADA
#ADA25
#DgovADA25

THEN


Senator Harkin Delivers Floor Speech in American Sign Language Upon Passage of the ADA: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BomPo6fPOOo

ADA History Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLhUAlIEq4gbqCK_3_ls2K2Rtiq6hPumHa

NOW

The ADA at 25: Promise, Progress, Opportunity U.S. Senate Bill Sponsor Hon. Tom Harkin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yToAav3qqBU

National Center on Health, Physical Activity and Disability (NCHPAD): Real People, Real Stories: Celebrating 25 Years of the ADA https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLwMObYmlSHaNT-gke7PoQqkc_k22dYqN5


What has changed since the ADA was passed 25 years ago? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mW4hB2hcPBM

http://hr.umich.edu/webaccess/
http://chronicle.com/blogs/profhacker/how-to-evaluate-your-web-pages-for-accessibility/60485?cid=wc&utm_source=wc&utm_medium=en

“One Simple Question” A History of Helping #UMSSD40

I’ve been wishing Storfiy embeds would work in this blog, but having to make do, and will share them here anyway, however awkwardly. So, here’s the first one I am sharing.

Last week Jane Vincent gave a wonderful presentation on the history and evolution of assistive technology and other resources on the University of Michigan campus for students with disabilities. The presentation was the kickoff for a year of wonderful events celebrating the 40th anniversary of Services for Students with Disabilities on campus.

Jane was a student during some of the early stages of getting this really off the ground, and now she is a leading point person for assistive technology information and access on campus. Along the way, she’s known most of the wonderful good hearted folk who have been working in this area here.

Jane shared her slides, but spoke for a long time on each slide, so the slides can only begin the process of providing insight and telling the story.

I live-tweeted the presentation, only catching a few of the high points. I was delighted that the tweeting capture the interest of people beyond UM, even engaging one of my favorite authors, Jacqueline Lichtenberg. The video will be available later, but in the meantime, check out the Storify for more information.

Archiving the History of Our Profession: MeSH 50th Anniversary

Medical Library

Many of you know that part of the reason for the decline in my online presence is that I’ve been hard at work for several months now on a few book chapters, the most recent pair about searching for information to support evidence-based practice in dentistry. The one I’ve trying so hard to finish right now is on searching PubMed. As part of this, I am trying to give a little bit of background on where PubMed comes from as part of trying to explain why certain features work the way they do now, sort of how evolution and early constraints shapes the later versions of the tool. For this, even though I rarely spend more than a sentence or two on any specific piece of history, I am searching for articles and content to validate dates of when I think things happened, and similar sorts of proof to support what I’m saying. God forbid I cite the evidence, eh? (Yes, that’s sarcasm, or irony, or something along those lines.

At one point last week I was searching for information about the origins of MeSH, and was delighted to discover a link on the MeSH homepage for their online exhibit about the 50th anniversary celebrations for MeSH.

MeSH 50th Anniversary

Unfortunately, it was a dead link, which surprised me. When did the history of MeSH and the 50th anniversary celebration become “grey literature”, or rather simply lost? Well, last week. I sent a quick email off to Customer Service at NLM on July 31st, and received a reply the following day. To my complete surprise, the reply stated that the link was to old content that had been deleted from the site, and the link to the content should have also been deleted. “The link was meant to be removed but we have the contents as pdf files.” True to their words, they promptly deleted the link from the page.

MeSH 50th Anniversary

I asked why, and was told it is part of their policy to keep web content fresh and lively, as is true of so many other organizations.

web content policy (currency OR current OR lively OR fresh or “up to date”)
Web content policies

Alright, yes, that is a good idea in general, and it is official policy, and there are good reasons for it, but … but … but … how on earth is someone supposed to know that such content ever existed, or that it was preserved as PDFs? How would someone discover that it existed to even ask for a copy? Don’t we want copies of information of interest about the history and origins and evolution of our profession? MeSH is so inextricably intertwined with medical librarianship that it seems to me essential to preserve not only this information but also ready access to it, DISCOVERABLE access.

I understand that the persons involved are simply doing their job the best they can and as they have been instructed to do it. I am not blaming them (which is why I am not giving any names). I see this as a symptom of a broader problem at a higher level. Policies of that sort are usually developed by and for the workflows of “webmasters, IT staff, and those program officials responsible for web content.” Personally, I find it shocking, perhaps even distressing, that a library, especially a library the caliber of the National Library of Medicine would choose to honor a well-intended policy that diminishes access to useful public information rather attempt to inform policy makers of the impact and to try to inject some insight and perspective into the policy reformation process. But that is my perspective, and possibly only mine.

The official guidelines from the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) do include policies that allow for the retention of information as well as for the disposal of information, or, as they put it, “records that have been destroyed.” Those NARA guidelines focus on trust, risk, mitigating risk, and responsibility. The guidelines include answers to such questions as “Does managing agency web sites as Federal records mean that I must keep all page changes for a long time?” That was a particularly interesting answer, also.

Q: Does managing agency web sites as Federal records mean that I must keep all page changes for a long time?
A: No. As MANAGING WEB RECORDS and SCHEDULING WEB RECORDS discuss in greater detail, your agency business needs, including the risks to the agency programs and mission should the information not be available, are the major factors in determining how long you need to keep those pages. Your web site schedule specifies the length of time you need to keep pages.

There are some very useful thoughts and considerations in these documents, even though they were drafted in January 2005 and have not been thoroughly updated since them. [ASIDE: There was an addendum issued in 2010 on “recent web technologies” including blogs and wikis, which expires October 31, 2013, so hopefully we’ll soon see something more in keeping with the current state of web technologies and trends.] The part that most interested me right now was how they archive content (they recommend “spiders” and “web snapshots”), and how they determine what content should be archived.

NARA Guidance on Scheduling Web Records: How are retention periods for web site-related records determined? http://www.archives.gov/records-mgmt/policy/managing-web-records-scheduling.html#retention

“[T]he agency needs to assess how long the information will be needed to satisfy business needs and mitigate risk, taking into account Government accountability and the protection of legal rights. If specific web content is available in places other than the web, consider whether the existence of the information in other records affects the retention needs for the web records. In the case of information unique to the web site, the web version is the only recordkeeping copy.” NARA Guidance on Scheduling Web Records.

Note especially, “the case of information unique to the web site.” The question becomes how valuable and relevant that information is over time, how worth preservation. There is other information about the history of MeSH. There is the valuable but brief introduction from NLM, duplicated in the MeSH Preface, and a 2006 variant of the same text.

NLM: History of MeSH: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/intro_hist.html

As part of the 50th anniversary celebration, there is an online copy of the first volume of MeSH, which I discovered only through a brief blogpost from the NNLM Southeastern/Atlantic Region.

Regarding web-searchable content of the actual 50th celebration itself, we are primarily reduced to the video from the presentation (lacking the transcript, and not located in YouTube for sharing or embedding); an announcement in the NLM Technical Bulletin; and myriad blogposts referencing the now defunct website.

Robert Braude. MeSH at 50 – 50th Anniversary of Medical Subject Headings (The impact of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) vocabulary on access to biomedical information.) http://videocast.nih.gov/Summary.asp?File=16292

50th Anniversary Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®) Event. November 02, 2010 [posted]. NLM Technical Bulletin 2010 NOVEMBER–DECEMBER No. 377.
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/techbull/nd10/nd10_mesh_50th_anniv.html

I did search in Google for the actual title of Dr. Braude’s presentation (“MeSH at 50 or Should It Now Join AARP”), and found one hit, from a chemical industry page evidently created by scraping the web through a spider and still online.

Screen Shot 2013-08-04 at 1.52.30 PM

Oh. Dear. He did such a splendid presentation, and now we can’t even find out that he had done it.

“As with other agency records, most web records do not warrant permanent retention and should be scheduled for disposal in accordance with the guidance provided above. In instances where NARA determines that a site or portions of a site has long-term historical value, NARA will work with the creating agency to develop procedures to preserve the records and provide for their transfer to the National Archives.” NARA Guidance on Scheduling Web Records.

Was the MeSH 50th Anniversary content archived with NARA? I don’t know. I don’t know how to find out. I did have an idea for how to find what was missing. If I can’t find the government’s information from the actual government, if I can’t trust the government to keep available the information I need or want from them, I look in the Internet Archive. The Archive is not a government organization. They are “a 501(c)(3) non-profit that was founded to build an Internet library.” What happens when the Archive runs out of money, I don’t know. I will say the idea scares me.

Meanwhile, I was able to find an archived copy of the main page before the link was deleted.

Archive.org: NLM: MeSH: http://web.archive.org/web/20130727172025/http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/

Why couldn’t I find this in Google? Because the Archive is part of what is known as the Internet’s “Deep Web.” The Deep Web is, according to Wikipedia, “The Deep Web (also called the Deepnet, the Invisible Web, the Darknet, the Undernet or the hidden Web) is World Wide Web content that is not part of the Surface Web, which is indexed by standard search engines.” Most websites that require you to perform a search to get to their content would be considered part of the Deep Web, especially if the search results do not generate a persistent URL. If the results do generate a permanent URL, then it is possible (although challenging) to create a resource that maps those links to the deep content of the site in a space which is searchable by Google.

That’s what I’m going to do now, for the web pages for the MeSH 50th anniversary. I’m doing this because I want to be able to find it again, more easily than it was for me this time. I’m doing this because Robert Braude said important things about MeSH and how it got here, because he gave faces and lively personalities to the people behind this famously dull and detailed masterwork, because he (and the rest of the 50th celebration site) gave a context that I have never seen anywhere else. Here are just a few of my favorite quotes from Braude’s presentation.


“When I received the invitation to speak today on the history of MeSH, I was truly shocked. I wondered how the History of Medicine Division dredged up my name but then I realized — I was NOW history.”

* * *

“Rather I choose to focus on the antecedents of MeSH, the fertile soil prepared by so many from which MeSH grew. These antecedents, shrouded in the dim mist of history, are, I think, of more interest. Revealing them, I believe, will give us a stronger sense of how far back the chain of MeSH development goes.”

* * *

(Quoting Janet Doe) “It is, moreover, economically unsound for all of our individual libraries to be trying to do for themselves what can only be adequately done by experts drudging away tirelessly for years on a fully representative collection of material.”

* * *

“Why MeSH; what were the forces shaping the effort to create such a resource?”

* * *

“Stan Jablonski, esteemed author of the Illustrated dictionary of eponymic syndromes and diseases and their synonyms and the Dictionary of medical acronyms & abbreviations was there, towering above us all physically as well as intellectually. Coffee breaks with Stan were a treat and an education. And I will never forget having to turn in my used pencils at the end of the day to Gus Gillespie since funds were just as tight then as they are now.”

* * *

“One of the problems with the constant changes to MeSH was searching backwards in time, for one needed to know what heading had been previously used.”

* * *

“The issue raised by Claudius Mayer was that there was no way a single authority list for cataloging monographs and indexing the periodical literature could be developed. Wrong Claudius, Dr. Rogers did it with MeSH.”


Here are the links to the Archive’s copy of the MeSH 50th Anniersary pages that have been lost to Google search.

Celebrating MeSH: 50 years of Medical Subject Headings
http://web.archive.org/web/20120715011340/http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/mesh_at_50/mesh_at_50.html

50 Years of Medical Subject Headings:
Past, Present, and Future Impact on Biomedical Information
Robert M. Braude, MLS, PhD, AHIP, FMLA, FACMI
Thursday, November 18, 2010
http://web.archive.org/web/20120727164056/http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/mesh_at_50/braude.html

Braude: Presentation Remarks: MeSH at Fifty, or, Should It Now Join AARP:
http://web.archive.org/web/20120727164057/http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/mesh_at_50/presentation.html

Faces of MeSH:
http://web.archive.org/web/20120727205432/https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/mesh_at_50/faces_of_mesh.html

Milestones in MeSH:
http://web.archive.org/web/20120727164124/http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/mesh_at_50/timeline.html

History of MeSH:
http://web.archive.org/web/20120727164125/http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/mesh_at_50/history_of_mesh.html

Publications about MeSH
http://web.archive.org/web/20120727164126/http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/mesh_at_50/publications_about_mesh.html